Sunday, August 23, 2015

First to arrive and last to leave…

It is hard to believe that just a few days ago, the hotel had 30+ college students
roaming the hallways and the parking lot was full of SUV’s washed in clay, sand and
mud. When most of the second phase of the SUGAR project had come to a halt, there
was still work to be completed by the Seismic Source Team (SST). In order to
understand why, let me take you through the work schedule of the SST.
Dr. Harder and I drove to Atlanta on July 1st after completion of the ENAM
project in North Carolina and began scouting the shot-holes we would need to drill, load
and stem i.e. fill before the shot dates, which were scheduled for August 7th and 8th for
Line 2 and August 14th for Line 3. When scouting, you want to ensure that the shot-hole
locations selected have good, accessible roads and enough space for the drillers as well as
work crew to move in and out of easily. However beforehand, you want to ensure that
you have the permits to access different properties and have the correct keys for the
property entrance/exit gates, which Donna took care of. Scouting holes took 4 days
before drilling began on July 7th until July 29th.
An example of a good, accessible road for the drillers and SST to use.
Pick a lock, any lock. One of the entrance/exit gates to a shot location. Thankfully, we
had the key. I just had to test it on each lock to open the gate.
 A typical workday would consist of waking up at 6:30 am, eating breakfast at 7
am and leaving to work at 7:30/8 am. We would arrive on site about an hour later and the
drillers would set up and begin drilling. This would take about 2-3 hours at some holes
and 3-4 hours at others. The last hole composed of hard rock took about 14 hours to
complete. That does not include the time it took for us to stem the hole. We would
prepare the charges to load into the hole when the drillers had ~20 ft left to drill. They
drilled up to ~80 ft at the 2 shot-holes on the ends of Line 2 and ~70 ft for the remaining
13 shot-holes. For Line 3, they drilled all 11 holes to ~60 ft. After drilling and loading
the charges into the ground, Dr. Harder would lead the drillers to the next shot-hole while
Galen, Yogi and I would stay behind to stem the hole with gravel, sand and plug it with
bentonite. We would also check the detonators to make sure they worked before heading
off to the next shot-hole to repeat the process. On average, we would drive anywhere
from 100 – 200 miles per day depending on what we were doing and where we needed to
go.
Yogi (Victor Avila, left) and Galen preparing 2  charges to be lowered into the shot-hole.
Each charge contains 2 detonators attached  to 2 boosters indicated by the sets of wires.
The drillers lowering the charge into the hole with Yogi carefully holding the detonator (orange wire) chords.
On the left is the water truck and to the right is the drill rig.
"The Beast" with a 1.1 Explosives placard after transporting the source materials to the shot location.
Galen taking a GPS waypoint of the loaded shot-hole while Ashley tests the detonators to ensure that they are working.
Dr. Harder (left) and Kent splicing the wires at one of the shot-holes to connect the detonators in order to shoot.
 The routine changed once drilling was complete. We made our way to Vidalia
where we met with Donna, Dan and everyone at the instruments center and began
preparing our equipment for the nights we were going to shoot. Shots would start at 11
pm and last until as late/early as sunrise depending on the weather conditions as well as if
the detonators would connect. The days that the deployment team members were
flagging and deploying instruments, we were busy driving to shot-holes and cleaning the
ones that blew out. The idea is that you make the shot-hole location look the way it did
before the shot took place.
Shot-hole 7 on Line 3. It looks like a regular hole, but it is actually about 5ft deep and has a 5ft diameter cavity.
Using the backhoe to clean up the above shot-hole.
After clean up!!
I can honestly say there was never a dull moment while working on the SST. I
remember Donna saying at our farewell dinner something along the lines, “We do all this
work for just a disk of data, but it’s all worth it.” She could not have summed it up any
better than that.

Here’s to another successful project….salud!

Ashley Nauer - UTEP

Sunday, August 16, 2015

L2-14

... so my mother can see I'm wearing a hardhat (Hi Mom).  Galen getting it done, Natalie with commentary, Yogi counting it down ...

video


Shot L3-01 video

video


HUGE THANKS to all the volunteers who worked so hard to make this project such a great success. It  was a pleasure working with you and getting to know you all.  Also mega thanks to all the landowners who were kind enough, and trusting enough, to let us put a source on their property.  None of this could have happened without your generosity and spirit of curiosity.  Thanks so much.

Dan



What goes bump in the night? We do.

Steve Harder prepares to detonate a shot.
Controlled blasts in deep holes are the source of sound waves for our program.  We set them off in the middle of the night because that is when it is quietest along the county and state roads where our instruments are shallowly buried on profiles across eastern Georgia and listening for sound waves.  During the nights of Aug 7, 8 and 11, our blasting experts Steve Harder, Galen Kaip and Ashley Nauer prepped and detonated 25 blasts along our lines, with some help from other enthusiastic scientists (like me).  Our shots have between 200 and 1600 lbs of explosives – mostly ammonium nitrate emulsion. At each shot, we connect a long wire between the drill hole and a blast box, move back a safe distance from the shot site, wait for the appointed time, and set off the blast. The blast box is used to detonate the shot at a very accurate time. There were two shooting teams, and each has different time windows for blasting to ensure that we only do one blast at a time. If two blasts occurred at the same time, the sound waves could interfere with one another.
Ashley Nauer and Kent Anderson wire up a shot.

When the blast goes off, you feel it more than hear it.  The sound waves radiate out from the shot traveling both within the earth and along the surface. Waves that travel along the surface of the earth (“surface waves”) cause the most ground shaking. If the ground is wet, sometimes a geiser briefly occurs 5-10 seconds are the explosion.  Not surprisingly, plenty of people are interested in experiencing this besides us!  Several of the property owners who very kindly gave us permission to set off these blasts on their land came out in the middle of the night to spectate.
Even putting aside the obvious rush of setting off a bunch of blasts, its fun to be out and about in the Georgia country side at night.  A cacophony of sounds echo around the forests from crickets and frogs.  Immediately after a shot, all of these creatures very briefly go silent – they know that something has happened! And then they ramp up again.  We also see other animals prowling around, including amardillos. A meteor shower occurred during our final night of blasting, which we could see quite well from the rural stretches of Georgia, far from light pollution of population centers.

Donna Shillington, LDEO

Jim Gaherty illuminates a steaming hole that formed over the shot site from the blast.
The shot team filled in this hole the next day.
Armadillo patrols one of shot sites.

Sunday, August 9, 2015

More updates from our field teams...


Seventeen teams are rounding up 1953 small seismic stations along our 350-mile-long line across eastern Georgia, and they continue to send texts and pictures with updates on their work…

“21757. Still kickin”
Kevin hunts for missing texans with the metal detector....

“Team 11 is all done and headed home to the mother ship”

“We’re not coming back unless we have all of them!”

“We had a helper at site 20431!”

“Hello Donna Rach and I are crushing it right now”

“Daily check in, we’re making good time so we should see the puppies soon enough”


Making metadata...

“Recovered a Texan at stop 20858. This one doesn’t seem to be working correctly, whenever I press it it just tells me things like “The Cowboys are America’s team” and “Bush was an American hero”. Weird.



“We got to 20170 the one with the ant colony”

Loaded up with Texans and geophones
“Stop 20804. Everything’s fine, except some guy came out of the woods and bit Brent. All he’s saying now is “brains” and is acting super creepy. I’ll keep an eye on it and only use the shovel if necessary”




“Will do! I will let you know if we become stuck… Looks likely”

Unearthing another Texan

“Just beat the downpour and headed for base”

“Stop 20879. Found the Texan disconnected from the geophone on top of where we buried it with pieces of bag around it, looked everywhere for the geophone. Found it about 5 m down the hill near the tree line with bite marks all along it. Either an animal dug it up or a very hungry confused thief”



Picking up litter?

“Found 2 dollars at 21058! Who says geology doesn’t pay well?”

Was not seen on the line...

Was seen on the line... yikes.

Thursday, August 6, 2015

Best texts from the field (so far...)

Seventeen teams have been out deploying small seismographs and geophones along a 300-mile-long profile across eastern Georgia, and they have been checking in with me regularly by text message. Some highlights from texts and pictures from our groups:



“Team4 is Done! I repeat again, 4 is done! Heading back to the sweet onion city! ☺”

“Still alive”



“Team gruesome twosome on our way back to the hub”

“We are gonna skip installing 21520 because both sides of the streets are well maintained yards and there’s not a great place to put a Texan”

“We’re done! Just kidding haha. We’re on our second!”

“We’re in the zone”

“All geophones buried --- I am beat. Where’s a can of spinach when ya need one, lol”

“It's a long way to the top if you want to study rocks”
"Sunrise at station 21779"

“We’re dirty but doing well!”


“Still digging. Still have not reached China. Will attempt again on next hole”


“On 20186 and we lost our bubble level. We even dug up the last geophone to see if I accidentally buried it”

“We just deployed our last station, 20224. Can we go to Jekyll Island?”



Donna Shillington, LDEO

Tuesday, August 4, 2015

Digging Holes and Filling Batteries -- A party in Vidalia, Georgia


The SUGAR deployment team arrived en-masse on Saturday bringing the Line 2 personnel total to a whopping 45! The day started off with science and overview lectures by the SUGAR principle investigators Donna Shillington and Dan Lizarralde.  Students diligently rearranged the ten’s of Texan boxes into a makeshift lecture hall, complete with a projector and a Bluetooth sound system. 

With the science lecture complete and stomachs full of pizza, the entire group ventured out to conduct a practice deployment under the watchful eyes of the PASSCAL instrument team.  All 17 teams participated in the activity, standing in a single file line in front of our hotel digging practice holes, connecting the Texans to the geophones, and mindfully orientating them with their handy-dandy bubble levels. 

After a sweat filled hour under the Georgia sun, we caravanned back to the instrument center for a “battery party”. I call it a battery party in honor of the “streamer parties” that students will often participate in on active source seismic research cruises in which kilometers of cable need to be reeled off and rearranged.  In our case a battery party consisted of the 32 students placing 2 D-cell batteries inside each of the 2,000 Texans.  The instrument center quickly transformed from an orderly lecture hall into a mass of empty battery boxes and disassembled Texans though despite the apparent chaos, we got the job complete and the Texans filled in only a few short hours. 

Next up will be flagging the instrument locations and the actual deployment.  We have our fingers and toes crossed for dry weather and safe road conditions as the student teams prepare to set off on their flagging and deployment expeditions. 

Natalie Accardo - Columbia University, LDEO


The SUGAR2 deployment team hails from all across the United States
covering more than 15 states and 21 different universities/institutions.   

The deployment team sits with rapt attention listening to
the science and overview lecture.

Students practice digging holes and deploying Texans
near our hotel in Vidalia, Georgia.

Students and PASSCAL personnel take over the instrument center
filling 2,000 Texans with D-cell batteries.

The "battery party" comes to an end as the last Texans are filled and
the boxes are rearranged for easy late-night programming by the PASSCAL team.